Angular - The Ultimate Walkthrough Learning Guide
What do you need to learn to become an Angular Master? The journey can feel overwhelming. The YouTube series can feel like it’s only covering the basics. That’s why I’ve created this Walkthrough Learning Guide to help you get started on your Angular journey. From zero to pro, these articles

In the modern digital era, the adage "time is money" couldn't be truer, especially when it comes to web applications. Users have grown accustomed to instant responses and lightning-fast load times. A slight lag, and you risk losing a user's attention or, worse, their trust. This is where performance optimization steps in, ensuring your web applications are not only functional but also fast and efficient.

Angular, as one of the leading web development frameworks, is not just popular for its robust features, but also for its commitment to performance. The Angular team has woven a slew of performance-oriented features directly into the fabric of the framework, empowering developers to build swift, responsive applications right out of the box.

Learning Outcomes:

By the end of this tutorial, you will:

  • Understand the nuances and importance of performance optimization in Angular.
  • Be adept at identifying potential performance bottlenecks in your Angular applications.
  • Master techniques like lazy loading and preloading to enhance your application's performance.


To get the most out of this tutorial, it's recommended that you:

  • Have a foundational understanding of Angular and its core concepts.
  • Are familiar with basic web performance metrics and terms.
  • Have hands-on experience building basic Angular applications.

Armed with this knowledge, you'll be well-equipped to dive into the intricacies of Angular performance optimization and supercharge your applications!

Understanding Performance Optimization in Angular

Performance optimization in Angular is a crucial aspect of web development. It involves improving the speed and efficiency of your Angular applications, ensuring a smooth and responsive user experience. This section will delve into the basics of web application performance, Angular’s rendering engine, and the role of change detection in performance.

Basics of Web Application Performance

Web application performance refers to the speed at which web pages are downloaded and displayed on the user’s web browser. It involves optimizing various aspects such as load time, time to first byte (TTFB), time to interactive (TTI), and more. In the context of Angular, this could mean optimizing your code, reducing bundle size, lazy loading modules, and more.

Angular’s Rendering Engine and How It Affects Performance

Angular uses a rendering engine that translates the application’s components into a format that can be displayed in the browser. The efficiency of this rendering engine directly impacts the performance of an Angular application.

Angular’s rendering engine works in two phases: the update phase, where it processes changes to data bindings, and the render phase, where it reflects these changes in the DOM. The more efficient this process is, the faster your application will run.

The Role of Change Detection in Performance

Change detection is a key feature in Angular that checks for changes in component data and updates the DOM to reflect these changes. While we’ve discussed this in detail earlier, it’s worth noting that efficient change detection can significantly improve performance.

By default, Angular uses a change detection strategy called Default, which checks for changes whenever any event occurs. However, this might not always be efficient. Using the OnPush strategy can improve performance as it runs change detection only when the input properties of a component change or when you manually request it.

Tools for Diagnosing Performance Issues

In the journey of optimizing Angular applications, diagnosing performance issues is a critical step. It involves identifying bottlenecks and areas of your application that are slowing down the user experience. There are several tools available that can help you with this task. This section will introduce you to some of these tools and how to use them effectively.

Introduction to Angular DevTools

Angular DevTools is a Chrome extension that provides a set of powerful features specifically designed for debugging and profiling Angular applications. It allows you to inspect the component tree, analyze change detection cycles, and observe the state of your application in real-time.

To use Angular DevTools:

  1. Install the extension from the Chrome Web Store.
  2. Open your Angular application in Chrome.
  3. Open Chrome’s Developer Tools (Ctrl+Shift+I / Cmd+Option+I).
  4. Navigate to the ‘Angular’ tab.

Here, you’ll see a visual representation of your component tree, which you can interact with to inspect individual components and their associated properties, inputs, outputs, and more.

Using Browser Developer Tools for Performance Profiling

Browser developer tools, such as those found in Chrome or Firefox, offer a wide range of features for performance profiling. The ‘Performance’ tab in Chrome DevTools, for example, allows you to record runtime performance, analyze frame rate, CPU usage, memory usage, and understand where time is spent during application runtime.

To profile performance with Chrome DevTools:

  1. Open your application in Chrome.
  2. Open Chrome’s Developer Tools (Ctrl+Shift+I / Cmd+Option+I).
  3. Navigate to the ‘Performance’ tab.
  4. Click on the ‘Record’ button (or hit Ctrl+E / Cmd+E) to start capturing performance data.
  5. Interact with your application as a user would.
  6. Click on the ‘Record’ button again to stop recording.
  7. Analyze the captured data in the interactive timeline.

Third-Party Tools and Extensions for Performance Analysis

There are also numerous third-party tools and extensions available that can provide additional insights into your application’s performance. Tools like ‘Lighthouse’, ‘WebPageTest’, and ‘PageSpeed Insights’ can give you a comprehensive overview of your application’s performance from a user’s perspective, including metrics like First Contentful Paint (FCP), Time to Interactive (TTI), and Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS).

Remember, while these tools can provide valuable insights, they are just aids in your performance optimization journey. The key is understanding what these metrics mean and using this knowledge to guide your optimization efforts effectively.

Identifying Performance Bottlenecks

Performance bottlenecks can significantly slow down your Angular application, leading to a poor user experience. Identifying these bottlenecks is the first step towards optimizing your application’s performance.

Common Causes of Performance Issues in Angular Apps:

  1. Expensive Computations in Component Methods: If your component methods contain complex logic or perform heavy computations, they can slow down your application, especially if they are called frequently. For example, complex calculations inside a component’s lifecycle hooks or event handlers can cause performance issues.
  2. Frequent DOM Manipulations: Angular uses a change detection mechanism to update the DOM. However, frequent and unnecessary DOM updates can lead to performance issues. This can happen if you have many bindings, frequent event emissions, or if you manually manipulate the DOM outside of Angular’s context.
  3. Large Datasets and Inefficient Data Operations: If your application deals with large datasets and performs operations like sorting, filtering, or transforming this data on the client side, it can lead to performance issues.
  4. Excessive Network Calls or Large Payload Sizes: Making too many network requests, especially in rapid succession, can slow down your application. Similarly, if the responses from your server carry large payloads, it can take longer for your application to process this data and update the UI.

Practical Steps to Isolate and Identify Bottlenecks:

  1. Use Profiling Tools: Use Angular DevTools or browser developer tools to profile your application’s runtime performance. Look for long-running tasks, frequent garbage collection events, or layout thrashing.
  2. Analyze Your Code: Review your component methods and templates for expensive operations or frequent DOM updates. Look for unnecessary computations in your methods or excessive bindings in your templates.
  3. Monitor Network Activity: Use the ‘Network’ tab in browser developer tools to monitor network requests made by your application. Look for frequent requests or large response payloads.
  4. Test with Realistic Data: When testing performance, use realistic data volumes. Performance issues often only become apparent when dealing with production-like data volumes.

Remember, optimizing performance is an iterative process: identify a bottleneck, make a change to address it, then measure again to see if performance has improved.

Code-Level Optimizations

Optimizing your Angular application at the code level can lead to significant performance improvements. Here are some strategies you can employ:

Reducing Change Detection Cycles

Angular’s change detection mechanism is powerful, but it can also be costly if not managed properly. Here are some ways to reduce unnecessary change detection cycles:

Use ChangeDetectionStrategy.OnPush: This tells Angular to run change detection only when the input properties of the component change or when you manually request it.

  selector: 'app-my-component',
  templateUrl: './my-component.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./my-component.component.css'],
  changeDetection: ChangeDetectionStrategy.OnPush
export class MyComponent { }

Detach and Reattach Change Detector: In some cases, you might want to manually control when Angular checks for changes. You can detach the change detector and then reattach it when needed.

constructor(private cd: ChangeDetectorRef) { }

ngOnInit() {;

someMethod() {
  // Perform some action;

Using Pure Pipes to Minimize Redundant Operations

Pipes in Angular can be either pure or impure. Pure pipes result in fewer computations as they are only re-evaluated when the input changes. Use pure pipes wherever possible to minimize redundant operations.

  name: 'myPipe',
  pure: true
export class MyPipe implements PipeTransform {
  transform(value: any, ...args: any[]): any {
    // Transformation logic here

Efficiently Managing Component Lifecycles

Lifecycle hooks in Angular allow you to perform actions at different stages of a component’s life. By efficiently managing these hooks, you can improve your application’s performance.

For example, you might use ngOnInit for initialization logic instead of the constructor, or use ngOnDestroy to clean up subscriptions or detach event handlers.

export class MyComponent implements OnInit, OnDestroy {
  constructor() { }

  ngOnInit() {
    // Initialization logic here

  ngOnDestroy() {
    // Cleanup logic here

Debouncing and Throttling for Events

Debouncing and throttling are techniques that can limit the rate at which a function is executed. This is particularly useful for events that fire frequently, such as scroll or resize events.

You can use libraries like lodash or RxJS to easily implement debouncing or throttling.

import { fromEvent } from 'rxjs';
import { debounceTime } from 'rxjs/operators';

fromEvent(window, 'resize').pipe(
).subscribe((event) => {
  // Handle resize event

Remember, code-level optimizations are just one part of performance optimization. Always measure before and after making changes to ensure your optimizations are having the desired effect.

Lazy Loading and Its Benefits

Lazy loading is a design pattern that defers the loading of non-critical resources at page load time. Instead, these resources are loaded when they are needed, which can significantly improve performance for users with slow network speeds or on low-end devices.

What is Lazy Loading?

Lazy loading, also known as asynchronous loading, is a strategy that prioritizes the loading of critical content and delays the loading of non-critical content. This means that when a user navigates to a page, only the essential resources are loaded immediately. The rest of the content, such as images or scripts, are loaded as they become necessary - for example, when a user scrolls down the page or clicks on a button.

How Lazy Loading Enhances Application Startup Performance

Lazy loading can significantly enhance application startup performance in two ways:

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