Angular - The Ultimate Walkthrough Learning Guide
What do you need to learn to become an Angular Master? The journey can feel overwhelming. The YouTube series can feel like it’s only covering the basics. That’s why I’ve created this Walkthrough Learning Guide to help you get started on your Angular journey. From zero to pro, these articles

In the dynamic world of web applications, smooth performance is paramount. Users expect instantaneous responses and seamless interactions, regardless of the heavy computations and data processing that might be happening behind the scenes. How do we achieve this seemingly magical feat? Enter Web Workers—a powerful tool that lets you run scripts in the background, separate from the main thread. For Angular developers, this means optimizing performance by offloading tasks and capitalizing on parallel processing capabilities. This tutorial will introduce you to the world of Web Workers within the Angular framework, guiding you through their creation, utilization, and the optimization of your application for true parallelism.

Learning Outcomes

Upon completing this tutorial, you'll be able to:

  1. Grasp the fundamental concept of Web Workers and their role in enhancing Angular application performance.
  2. Construct and integrate Web Workers seamlessly into your Angular projects.
  3. Optimize your application to take full advantage of parallel processing using Web Workers, leading to more responsive and efficient user experiences.


To derive the maximum value from this tutorial, it's recommended that readers have:

  • A solid understanding of Angular and its core principles.
  • Basic familiarity with multithreading or parallel processing concepts.
  • An Angular project or a readiness to set one up for hands-on learning.
  • A zest for enhancing application performance and user satisfaction!

Delving into Web Workers

Understanding the Basics: How Web Workers Run in the Background

Web Workers are a simple means for web content to run scripts in background threads. The worker thread can perform tasks without interfering with the user interface. In addition, they can perform I/O using XMLHttpRequest (although the responseXML and channel attributes are always null). Once created, a worker can send messages to the JavaScript code that created it by posting messages to an event handler specified by that code (and vice versa.)

A worker is an object created using a constructor (e.g., Worker()) that runs a named JavaScript file — this file contains the code that will run in the worker thread. Workers run in another global context that is different from the current window. Thus, using the window shortcut to get the current global scope (instead of self) within a Worker will return an error.

Here’s an example of how to create a Web Worker:

var myWorker = new Worker('worker.js');

myWorker.onmessage = function(e) {
  console.log('Message received from worker',;

myWorker.postMessage([first.value, second.value]);

In this example, we’re creating a new Web Worker that runs the code in worker.js. We’re setting up an event listener to log messages from the worker, and we’re sending a message to the worker with postMessage.

Benefits of Web Workers: Parallelism, Non-Blocking Operations, and Enhanced User Experiences

Web Workers bring several benefits to JavaScript development:

  • Parallelism: Web Workers run in separate threads from the main browser thread, enabling parallel computing capabilities for web applications.
  • Non-Blocking Operations: With Web Workers, long-running operations don’t block the main thread, keeping your site or app responsive even when processing large amounts of data.
  • Enhanced User Experiences: By offloading complex computations or I/O operations to a background thread, you can keep your UI responsive and smooth, leading to better user experiences.

By understanding and leveraging Web Workers, you can create web applications that are more powerful, responsive, and user-friendly.

Web Workers and Angular: A Natural Fit

Angular’s Perspective on Performance Optimization

Angular, as a framework, is designed with performance in mind. It provides various strategies and techniques to optimize the performance of web applications, such as Ahead-of-Time (AOT) compilation, lazy loading of modules, and change detection strategy.

However, despite these optimizations, JavaScript runs in a single-threaded environment in the browser. This means complex computations or heavy processing can block the main thread and make the application unresponsive. This is where Web Workers come into play.

How Web Workers Integrate into the Angular Framework

Angular provides first-class support for Web Workers, allowing developers to offload complex computations or heavy processing to a separate thread, keeping the application responsive.

Here’s an example of how you might use a Web Worker in an Angular service:

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';

export class MyWorkerService {
  private worker: Worker;

  constructor() {
    this.worker = new Worker('./my-worker.worker', { type: 'module' });

  postMessage(data: any): void {

  onMessage(): Observable<any> {
    return fromEvent(this.worker, 'message');

In this example, we’re creating a new Web Worker in the service’s constructor and providing two methods: postMessage to send data to the worker, and onMessage to listen for messages from the worker.

By integrating Web Workers into your Angular applications, you can leverage the power of parallel computing and create more performant and responsive web applications.

Setting up Web Workers in an Angular Application

Initial Configurations and Prerequisites

Before you start, make sure you have the following prerequisites:

  • An Angular application created with the Angular CLI.
  • Basic knowledge of TypeScript and Angular.

Creating Your First Web Worker: A Step-by-Step Guide

Here’s how you can create a Web Worker in your Angular application:

Generate a Web Worker File: Use the Angular CLI to generate a new Web Worker file. In your terminal, navigate to the directory of the component where you want to use the Web Worker and run the following command:

ng generate web-worker my-worker

This command generates a new file my-worker.worker.ts in the same directory.

Implement Your Web Worker: Open my-worker.worker.ts and implement your worker. Here’s an example of a simple worker that just echoes back any message it receives:

addEventListener('message', ({ data }) => {
  postMessage(`Worker received: ${data}`);

Use Your Web Worker in a Component: In your component, create a new instance of your worker and set up message handling. Here’s an example:

import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';

  selector: 'app-my-component',
  templateUrl: './my-component.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./my-component.component.css']
export class MyComponent implements OnInit {
  private worker: Worker;

  ngOnInit() {
    if (typeof Worker !== 'undefined') {
      // Create a new
      this.worker = new Worker('./my-worker.worker', { type: 'module' });
      this.worker.onmessage = ({ data }) => {
        console.log(`Page got message: ${data}`);
    } else {
      // Web Workers are not supported in this environment.
      // You should add a fallback so that your program still executes correctly.

In this example, we’re creating a new instance of our worker when the component is initialized, setting up an event listener to log messages from the worker, and sending a ‘hello’ message to the worker.

That’s it! You’ve now set up a Web Worker in your Angular application. Remember that Web Workers are most effective for offloading complex computations or I/O operations that would otherwise block the main thread. Use them wisely to keep your Angular applications performant and responsive.

Communicating with Web Workers

Passing Data Between the Main Thread and a Web Worker

Communication between the main thread and a Web Worker is achieved through a system of messages. Both sides send their messages using the postMessage() method, and respond to messages via the onmessage event handler.

Here’s an example of how you might send a message from the main thread to a worker:

// main.js
var myWorker = new Worker('worker.js');

myWorker.postMessage([first.value, second.value]);

And here’s how you might handle that message in the worker:

// worker.js
onmessage = function(e) {
  console.log('Message received from main script');
  var result =[0] *[1];

In this example, we’re sending an array of two numbers from the main thread to the worker, and the worker is responding with the product of those two numbers.

Handling Messages and Errors Effectively

In addition to handling messages, it’s also important to handle any potential errors that might occur in your worker. You can do this using the onerror event handler:

// main.js
var myWorker = new Worker('worker.js');

myWorker.onerror = function(e) {
  console.error('Error from worker: ', e.message);

In this example, we’re logging any errors that occur in the worker to the console.

Understanding the Limitations: No DOM Access, Limited Global Scope

While Web Workers are powerful, they do come with some limitations:

  • No DOM Access: Web Workers do not have access to the DOM. They can’t read or modify the HTML document. Instead, they can only communicate with the main thread via messaging.
  • Limited Global Scope: Web Workers do not have access to certain JavaScript APIs, such as window, document, or parent. However, they do have access to some data such as Navigator and Location, although they can only read Location.

By understanding these limitations, you can make effective use of Web Workers in your web applications.

Parallelism in Action: Use Cases for Web Workers in Angular

Background Computations and Data Processing

Web Workers are perfect for performing heavy computations or processing large amounts of data. They can perform these tasks in the background without blocking the UI thread. For example, if your Angular application needs to process a large dataset to generate some analytics or reports, you can offload this task to a Web Worker.

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