Angular - The Ultimate Walkthrough Learning Guide
What do you need to learn to become an Angular Master? The journey can feel overwhelming. The YouTube series can feel like it’s only covering the basics. That’s why I’ve created this Walkthrough Learning Guide to help you get started on your Angular journey. From zero to pro, these articles

In today's interconnected digital world, applications often cater to a global audience. As such, making applications adaptable and understandable for different languages, cultures, and regions becomes a necessity. This adaptability is facilitated through the processes of internationalization and localization. In the realm of Angular, a modern and versatile framework, there exist robust tools and practices to seamlessly embed these processes into your applications. This tutorial will delve into how you can configure your Angular application to support multiple languages and harness the power of pipes and translations for effective localization.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this tutorial, you will:

  1. Understand the fundamental concepts of internationalization and localization within the context of Angular.
  2. Configure your Angular application to support multiple languages, ensuring a broader reach and adaptability.
  3. Work proficiently with Angular's tools such as pipes and translations to effortlessly localize content for varying audiences.


To get the most out of this tutorial, readers should have:

  • A basic understanding of Angular and its core concepts.
  • Familiarity with TypeScript and Angular CLI.
  • Experience in setting up and running Angular applications.
  • An open mindset to embrace the diverse requirements of a global audience!

Diving Deep: Understanding i18n and l10n

Internationalization (i18n) and Localization (l10n) are two fundamental concepts in software development, especially when dealing with multi-language user interfaces.

i18n, short for ‘internationalization’, is the process of designing and preparing your app to be usable in different languages. This involves extracting all text strings from your code into external files (.xlf files in Angular) that can be translated. The ‘18’ in i18n stands for the number of letters between the first ‘i’ and the last ‘n’ in ‘internationalization’.

On the other hand, l10n, short for ‘localization’, is the process of adapting an internationalized app for a specific region or language by adding locale-specific components and translating text. The ‘10’ in l10n stands for the number of letters between ‘l’ and ‘n’ in ‘localization’.

While i18n is about potential reach (all the regions/languages your app could support), l10n is about actual reach (the specific regions/languages your app currently supports).

The business and user experience advantages of i18n and l10n

Implementing i18n and l10n in your Angular applications has several advantages:

  1. Broader Reach: By making your application accessible to users around the world, you can reach a much larger audience. This can lead to increased usage, engagement, and potentially, revenue.
  2. Improved User Experience: Users are more comfortable using applications in their native language. By providing localized content, you can improve usability and user satisfaction.
  3. Competitive Advantage: As the digital world becomes increasingly global, offering multilingual support can give your application a competitive edge.
  4. Cultural Sensitivity: Localization also involves adapting your content to suit local cultural sensitivities, which shows respect for your users’ cultures and can enhance their trust in your application.

Here’s an example of how you might implement i18n in an Angular application:

// app.component.ts
import { Component } from '@angular/core';
  selector: 'app-root',
  templateUrl: './app.component.html'
export class AppComponent {
  title = $localize`:@@siteTitle:Hello World`;

In this example, $localize is a tag function that Angular’s internationalization system provides for translating strings. The @@siteTitle is an optional custom ID that translators can use to identify this particular string.

You would then extract this string into a message file using Angular’s localization tools, translate it, and load the appropriate translation file at runtime based on the user’s locale.

Setting the Stage: Angular’s i18n and l10n Tools

Angular provides a suite of tools for internationalizing your applications. These tools include:

  1. $localize: A service for marking strings in your application code for translation.
  2. i18n pipes: Angular provides several pipes, such as DatePipe, CurrencyPipe, DecimalPipe and PercentPipe, that automatically format data based on the current locale.
  3. ng xi18n: A command-line tool for extracting marked strings from your code and generating a translation source file.
  4. Runtime translation: Angular’s compiler can replace translated strings in your application at runtime, allowing you to deliver a version of your app in the user’s language.

The architecture and workflow of Angular’s i18n process

The internationalization process in Angular involves several steps:

  1. Marking text for translations: You mark text that needs to be translated using the $localize service in your TypeScript code or the i18n attribute in your templates.
  2. Extracting marked text: You run the ng xi18n command to extract the marked text into a translation source file (in XLIFF or XMB format).
  3. Translating the text: A translator edits this file, translating the extracted text into the target language, and saves it as a translation file.
  4. Compiling the application with translations: When building your application for production, you use the --localize option with ng build. Angular’s compiler replaces the original texts in your application with the translated texts.

Here’s an example of how you might mark text for translation in an Angular template:

This post is for paying subscribers only

Sign up now and upgrade your account to read the post and get access to the full library of posts for paying subscribers only.

Sign up now Already have an account? Sign in